Evaluation of the Sustainable Aspects In Housing Sector To Overcome Housing Stress In Northern Iraq

Main Article Content



Northern Iraq as part of Iraq, has been witnessed a great population increment last few decades. However, housing stress in Northern Iraq has risen due to that. Environmental, economic and social sustainability became crucial in the movement towards a more effective built environment and community nowadays. This research seeks to evaluate the presence of sustainability aspects (environmental, economic, and social) in housing sector, which makes them acquired and affordable for low income earners in Northern Iraq. Housing projects as case studies were investigated in Erbil, the capital of Northern Iraq. The research examined, the presence of sustainability aspects. Field observations checklist have been prepared based on the theoretical analysis through literature review and applied to collect data on the case studies. The results demonstrated that applying the aspects of sustainability for the buildings is weak and not clearly familiar in Northern Iraq. The study concluded that, the housing projects focusing on the case studies not sustainable. The findings show that the application of sustainable principles in the housing projects at Northern Iraq is very weak. It is highly recommended to achieve sustainability, because it is the significant way to produce acquired and affordable housing and overcome the housing problems, socially, environmentally and economically. The recommendations have been suggested to formulate new ways for implementing sustainable principles in the housing sector to overcome housing stress in Northern Iraq.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
AMIN, R., & MUHY AL-DIN, S. (2019). Evaluation of the Sustainable Aspects In Housing Sector To Overcome Housing Stress In Northern Iraq. International Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(1), 67-81. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4684


Abidin, N. Z., & Jaapar, A. (2008). Sustainable Concept Awareness in Malaysia Construction Practices. Presented at The 3rd Built Environment and Natural Environment Conference, 137-144. Retrieved from, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Abiodun, J.A. (1985). 'Housing Problems in Nigeria Cities' in Onibokun, P. (Ed.) Housing in Nigeria (49-63). Ibadan, Nigeria: A Book of Reading NISER. Retrieved from, http://www.niser.ac.in/library/content/online-databases

Adams, W.M. (2006, 29-31, January).The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Report presented to the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting.IUCN, the world conservation union. Retrieved from, https://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf

Adebayo, C. O. (2013). Comfort Factors in Low Cost Houses: Case Study at Batu Pahat, Johor Malaysia. Master Thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Malaysia: Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Retrieved from, http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/5443/1/CHRISTIE_OLUSEYI_ADEBAYO.pdf

Al Surf, M. S. (2014). Challenges Facing the Application of Sustainability to Housing in Saudi Arabia. Ph.D. Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland. Australia: Queensland University of Technology. Retrieved from, https://eprints.qut.edu.au/78685/3/Mohammed_Saied_Al_Surf_Thesis.pdf

American Institute of Architects (1992). Subscription: Environmental Resource Guide. Washington: American Institute of Architects. Retrieved from, https://www.buildinggreen.com/newsbrief/environmental-resource-guide

Asif, M., Muneer, T. &Kubie, J. (2005). Sustainability analysis of window frames. Building Services Engineering Research & Technology 26(1): 71-87. Doi.org/10.1191/0143624405bt118tn

Chiu, R.L.H. (2004). Socio-cultural sustainability of housing: a conceptual Exploration. Housing, Theory and Society, 21, 65-76. Doi.org/10.1080/14036090410014999

Dell’Isola, A. J., and Stephen J. K. (1981). Life Cycle Costing for Design Professionals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Faraj, Y. (2014). Land strategies to address low-income housing in Suleimany city, Kurdistan Regional Government. Master Thesis, TU Delft. Delft, Netherlands: Delft University of Technology. Retrieved from, file:///C:/Users/dell/Downloads/P5%20Final%20report_Land%20strategies_yadfaraj_1272241.pdf

Ilberg, A., and Rollins, C. (2007). Low Cost House Construction Manual. USA: Engineers without Borders. Retrieved from, https://www.doc-developpement-durable.org/file/Construction-Maisons_et_routes/MaisonsABasCout/LowCostHouseConstructionManual.pdf

Jin Kim, J. (1998). Sustainable Architecture Module: Qualities, Use, and Examples of Sustainable Building Materials. USA: National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Retrieved from, https://p2infohouse.org/ref/26/25792.pdf

Joseph, S. (2006); “Sustainable Housing Development in Nigeria: The Financial and Infrastructural Implication”. International Conference on Spatial Information for Sustainable Development Nairobi, Kenya 2–5 October 2001. Retrieved from, https://www.fig.net/resources/proceedings/2001/nairobi/ajanlekoko-CMWS1-1.pdf

Koenigsberger, OH , Ingersoll, TG , Mayhew,A. , Szokolay, S V. (2010) . Manual of Tropical Housing And Building . Hyderabad: India, Universities Press. https://www.slideshare.net/yashu2211/manual-of-tropical-housingkoenigsberger-52000850

Kothari, C.R., 2004. Research methodology: Methods and Techniques, second revised edition. New International Publisher. University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India). Retrieved from, http://www.modares.ac.ir/uploads/Agr.Oth.Lib.17.pdf

Maliene, V., Howe, J., & Malys, N. (2008). Sustainable Communities: Affordable Housing and Socio-Economic Relations. Local Economy, 23(4), 267-276. Doi.org/10.1080/02690940802407989

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Retrieved from, https://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm

McConville J. R. (2006). Applying Life Cycle Thinking to International Water and Sanitation Development Projects: An assessment tool for project managers in sustainable development work. Master thesis, Houghton, Michigan. Michigan Technological University. USA: Michigan Technological University. Retrieved from, https://www.mtu.edu/peacecorps/programs/civil/pdfs/jennifer-mcconville-thesis-final.pdf

Ministry of Construction & Housing, Republic of Iraq. (2006). Iraq Housing Market Study: Main Report. Iraq: PADCO In cooperation with Community Development Group. Retrieved from, https://www.humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2013/05/4997_65700_IHMS_Main_Report.pdf
Central Office of Statistics
Ministry of Planning (2011). Regional Development strategy for Kurdistan region 2012-2016. Erbil, Iraq: KRG. Retrieved from, http://www.mop.gov.krd/resources/MoP%20Files/PDF%20Files/gd_ps/regional_development_strategy.pdf

Ministry of Planning (2012a). Regional Development strategy for Kurdistan region 2013-2017. Erbil, Iraq: KRG. Retrieved from, http://www.mop.gov.krd/resources/Strategic%20Plan/PDF/Regional%20Development%20Strategy%20for%20Kurdistan%20Region%202013-2017.pdf

Ministry of Planning (2012b). Building the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: The Socio-Economic Infrastructure. A Joint Report by the KRG Ministry of Planning and UNDP. Erbil, Iraq: KRG Ministry of Planning and UNDP. Retrieved from, https://us.gov.krd/media/1318/building-the-kurdistan-region-sociao-economic.pdf

Minke, G. (2006). Building with Earth: Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. Berlin, Germany: Birkhäuser – Publishers for Architecture. Retrieved from, http://www.rivendellvillage.org/Building_With_Earth.pdf

Muhy Al-Din, S. S., Iranfare, M., Surchi, Z. (2017). Building Thermal Comfort Basedon Envelope Development: Criteria for selecting right case study in Kyrenia- North Cyprus. Energy Procedia (Open Access), 115, 80-91. Doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.009

Muhy Al-Din, S. S. (2017). The influence of Mediterranean modernist movement of architecture in Lefkoşa: The first and early second half of 20th century. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 01(01), 10-23. Retrieved from, http://ijcua.com/index.php/ijcua/article/view/4

Olayiwola, A. L.M., Adeleye, O., Ogunshakin, L. (2005, September, 27-30). Public Housing Delivery in Nigeria: Problems and Challenges. Presented to World congress on Housing Transforming Housing Environments through the Design September, Pretoria. South Africa: XXXIII IAHS. Retrieved from, https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/10438/Public?sequence=1

Pullen, S., Arman, M., Zillante, G., Zuo, J., Chileshe, N. & Wilson, L. (2010). Developing an assessment framework for affordable and sustainable housing. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 10(1/2), 48-64. Retrieved from, file:///C:/Users/dell/Downloads/1587-Article%20Text-6398-1-10-20100702.pdf

Rashid, R.H.M. (2014). The Use of Water for Sustainable Rural Development: A Case Study in the Kurdistan Regional Government. Doctoral Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. https://scindeks.ceon.rs/article.aspx?query=ISSID%26and%2613393&page=0&sort=8&stype=0&backurl=%2Fissue.aspx%3Fissue%3D13393

Sani , A. R., Che Munaaim, M. A. (2012). Sustainable House Principle in Affordable House. International Proceedings of Economics Development & Research (IPEDR), 39. Retrieved from, http://www.ipedr.com/vol39/001-ICITE2012-B00001.pdf

Shawkat, L. W., Muhy Al-Din, S. S., Kuzović, D. (2018). Opportunities for Practicing Sustainable Building Construction in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 2(1), 96– 101. Doi:10.25034/ijcua.2018.3665

Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (1948). [Retrieved] from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Documents/UDHR_Translations/eng.pdf
UN -Agenda 21. (2004). New York, USA: NY. Retrieved from, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/outcomedocuments/agenda21


Waltz, C., Strickland, O. L., & Lenz, E. (Eds.). (2010). Measurement in nursing and health research. Springer Publishing Company. Retrieved from, http://lghttp.48653.nexcesscdn.net/80223CF/springer-static/media/samplechapters/9780826105073/9780826105073_chapter.pdf

Winston, N., & Eastaway, M. P. (2008). Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context:
International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing. Social
Indicators Research, 87(2), 211-221. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-007-9165-8

Zainul Abidin, N., Pasquire, C. L. (2005). Delivering sustainability through value management: Concept and performance overview. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 12(2), 168 – 180. DOI: 10.1108/09699980510584502