City, Urban Transformation and the Right to the City (2019-06-23)
Abstract: This article investigates the relationship between transformation of cities and the right to the city. To be able to do this, the problems that are created by contemporary urbanization such as social exclusion, poverty and environmental degradation are discussed in the first part. After that, with a special focus on the period starting with industrial revolution up until today, the article explains economic and political motivations behind urban transformation. This part emphasizes how urban change under different forms of capitalism creates and deepens social inequalities in cities. Final part of this article will be a discussion on the right to the city, and its relation to these urban issues.
Street Furniture Influence in Revitalizing the Bahraini Identity (2019-07-28)
Abstract: Bab Al-Bahrain Avenue is one of the liveliest streets and its location is in the intermediate of the historical part that gave the avenue a strong historical dimension in the urban context of Manama city, Kingdom of Bahrain. Moreover, the avenue has economic and cultural significance activities. The socio-economic value of Bab-AL Bahrain and the gold market make them the busiest streets in Manama. The existing users of the avenue are variable between residences, local visitors and tourist. Unfortunately, with the rapid urban developing for the Manama City in general and Bab Al Bahrain area, and the changing for the economic base for most of the original families they moved to other suitable places to them while new non-Bahraini replaced them. As a result, the sense of identity and belonging is not considerable. Consequently, the identity for these areas is in its way to disappear. This research analyzed the street furniture condition and focused on the act of street furniture role in revitalizing Bahraini identity in such an area. Moreover, the research draws the point of revitalizing the sense of belonging for the residences, which will influence positively upon the open spaces’ conditions and the visual quality.
A Research on Urban Identity: Sample of Kadıköy District (2019-08-30)
Abstract: Cities have idiosyncratic identities composed of the combination of identity elements which are generated by the natural, social or built environments. Due to globalization, neo-liberal approaches and urban branding, cities have lost their unique identities to a significant extent; and resemblances among cities have gradually emerged. Therefore, some research questions occur such as which urban elements are the identity elements that form the unique identity; what are the problems that threaten the identity elements; and which identity features should be emphasized. The aim of this study is to analyze the unique identity and identity elements, and also determine the positive and negative identity features of an urban district. Central Kadıköy, located on the Asian side of Istanbul, was chosen as the experiment area and 117 questionnaires were conducted. The results have revealed that the most frequently defined unique identity element of Central Kadıköy is the Bull Statue; the second one is İskele Square and the third one is the Moda Coast. According to the focal points of this study, relation with nature is an important identity feature that needs to be emphasized; on the other hand, over-urbanization and deterioration of historical identity are the characteristics that should be prevented.
Socio-Psychological Effects of Urban Green Areas: Case of Kirklareli City Center (2019-08-30)
Abstract: Urban open green spaces have an important role in today's health problems and the necessity for the urban health to create green areas that have high accessibility for all citizens. Acceleration of urbanization in recent decades decays balance of green areas and impervious surfaces in cities because of rent seeking society. The main problem associated with adequate provision of green area and fair access for residents. According to the “Spatial Planning Policy Framework”, Kırklareli doesn’t provide green space per capita. The aim of the study is to identify the socio-psychological effects of the green areas in the Kirklareli. Objectives of the study is to determine the correlation between socio- psychological criterias with green space accesiblity, per capita and visiting time and to discuss the findings rationale. The following hypothesis was proposed “urban green areas on inhabitants have positive effects on human health, quality of life and stress”. In this context, a survey was conducted to analyze the socio-psychological effects of urban green spaces in Kirklareli. Expected outcome of the study is that green areas are associated with positive emotions, green space per capita and accessibility that can assist to decrease inequalities in health.
Why isn’t urban development sustainable? (2019-08-30)
Despite the rise to prominence of sustainable planning, the state of urgency and the pressure imposed by the extreme competition between metropolitan territories reduces sustainability to a market-oriented doctrine for deregulated urban development. The aim of this article is an exploration of the current Athenian urban crisis, by centring on sustainable urban development plans, territorial planning institutions, and urban policies. To this end, the phenomenon of urban crisis is explained as a derivative of the failure of sustainability reforms. By establishing a link between the institutional framework governing urban development and the success or failure of sustainability reforms, this article seeks to contribute to the discussion around the attainability, scope and impact of sustainable urban development plans. Through the hypothesis that as long as territorial planning is used as means towards speculative urban development, it will only be equivalent to that of a real estate facilitating mechanism, it is argued that the urban development model of Athens, as well as the role that institutions have in its shaping, is incompatible with any notion of sustainability. The main contribution of this article is to potentially help towards developing a critical reflection on how projects, plans, territories and sustainability should be approached.
Automobile Trips to School and Safety Perspectives of Unplanned Lokoja Metropolis in North Central Nigeria (2019-08-30)
Abstract: Many studies on transport research did not consider the consequences of high reliance on automobile trip to schools which frequently resulted to road traffic crashes, traffic delay, and late arrival to school, injuries and sometimes death of victims especially students. As a result this research examines the consequences of automobile trip to school among secondary school students in Lokoja metropolis. It aims to investigate the safety of the use of automobile in an unplanned city like Lokoja, with the specific objectives of ascertaining the number of pupils who embark on different automobile trips; the safety measures, and the casualty cases. Three hundred students were selected for questionnaire administration across six selected secondary schools in the city. Data on students’ road traffic crashes were obtained from archives. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for analyses. Findings reveal that more than 70% of students rely on automobile to travel to schools. Car trips to schools were more among students of private secondary schools. Students in private secondary schools rely more on the use of a school bus. It was also discovered that students were involved more in traffic crashes along major roads. The study concludes on the use of school bus by students instead of relying on private cars.
Mitigating Environmental Sustainability Challenges and Enhancing Health in Urban Communities: The Multi-functionality of Green Infrastructure (2019-08-30)
Abstract: Green Infrastructure (GI) facilities have capacity to enhance health and mitigate Environmental Sustainability Challenges (ESC). However, the extent of the mitigation and health benefits is unclear in developing countries. This study examined the impact of GI on ESC and Perceived Health (PH) of urban residents in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 1858 residents of Lagos Metropolis who completed semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used to explore data distributions and assess association of the availability of GI with resident’s PH and ESC. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (OR;95%CI) were estimated for good health and ESC mitigation. Participants were mostly men (58.9%) and younger than 50 years old (86.3%). Good health (20.5%) and high mitigation of ESC (collection and disposal of waste-52.7% and official development assistance-63.9%) were reported where GI is mostly available. Participants were more likely to report good health (OR:1.40; 95%CI:1.02-1.92) and high mitigation of ESC [water quality (OR:1.42; 95%CI:1.12-1.81) passenger transport mode (OR:1.41; 95%CI:1.06-1.89)] where GI are mostly available. Availability of Green infrastructure is supporting health and mitigating environmental sustainability challenges in the study area. Green infrastructure should be provided in urban areas where environmental sustainability is under threat.
Towards A Post-Traumatic Urban Design That Heals Cities’ Inhabitants Suffering From PTSD (2019-08-30)
Abstract: Cities are generally in a state of constant modification. Some experience this modification at a more rapid pace due to the technology available in the city; others experience this modification due to the city’s time of life, which requires many civilizations to imprint their architectural style and project their social image and identity. In certain cases, these modifications are due to natural disasters, such as earthquakes or tsunamis, or man-made wars, or even both. The study revealed that the relationship found between the ability of “Beirutis” (how Beirut’s original inhabitants call themselves) to perceive their identity through the built environment and PTSD, will help urban planners and architects find the procedures based on observation and scientific facts to build with the opportunity to heal disaster-torn cities’ inhabitants from PTSD.
Understanding Aesthetic Experiences of Architectural Students in Vertical and Horizontal Campuses (2019-09-08)
Abstract: The typological features of university campus areas are shaped according to their locations in the city. Campuses in city centers carry great potentials for students’ cultural, intellectual and artistic activities, especially for those from faculty of architecture and design, with close relations to the city. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach for measuring architecture students’ aesthetic experience of vertical and horizontal campuses in relation to sense of place theory. Recently, emerging technologies in cognitive science, such as brain imaging techniques, activity maps, sensory maps, cognitive mapping and photo-projective method etc., have enabled advanced measurement of aesthetic experience. In this exploratory research, using ‘photo-projective method’, students will be asked to interpret and draw ‘cognitive maps’ of the places that they are happy to be (defined place) or to see (landscape) on the campus. Based on students’ impressions and experiences, it will be possible to compare aesthetic experience on vertical and horizontal campus. Thus, a comprehensive approach for improving campus design according to users’ aesthetic experiences and sense of place rather than building technology, law, development and finance driven obligations will be introduced.
The Identification of The City on The Legibility and Wayfinding Concepts: A Case of Trabzon (2019-09-08)
Abstract: The concept of wayfinding includes understanding the space and finding direction within the space. But as cities and architectural spaces grow and become more complex, visitors and locals of the sapce can find it difficult to find direction. For these reasons, for visitors who speak different languages, along with these elements, there is a need for well-designed information and direction-finding graphics and landmarks that have a universal quality. The aim of the study is to explain the concepts of wayfinding and way-finding, defined as “direction-finding” in the literature and to create awareness. Furthermore, to analyze the concept of wayfinding and the direction designs that aim to transform the cities that have become complex into more understandable spaces, through the city of Trabzon and to examine the problems of the city in this context and to make suggestions. In this study, Trabzon will be evaluated with the concepts of legibility and directability and the direction and information designs over the focal point, regions, edges, nodes, roads with which Kevin Lynch have defined the imageable, readable city. A survey was conducted to investigate the spatial information elements and legibility of Trabzon city. Furthermore, to create awareness for other cities with similar problems.
Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use in Cappadocia: A Taxonomy of Creative Design Solutions for Uchisar Boutique Hotels (2019-09-08)
The "architecture without architect" in Cappadocia has always been fairy due to its volcanic stone formations and transforming silhouettes. In 1973, French architect Jack Avizou highlighted the essence of cave houses as vernacular building types and their potentials for local tourism beyond conventional notions of architectural heritage. Upon completing restoration of cave houses in Uçhisar and transforming them to boutique hotels, he was nominated for Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2010. On the other hand,
Aga Khan Award winner Turkish architect Turgut Cansever, had also been advising for Argos Hotel project in Uçhisar since 1996. He gave importance to the concept of "protection" and preserved vernacular identity and characteristics despite the demands of tourism sector. This paper aims to explore Avizou and Cansever’s design solutions in Uçhisar’s local context. Building and spatial relations in interiors will be analyzed with cluster analysis and ranked according to levels of novelty. Hence, achievement of creativity through transformation, combination and variation of original designs, will be displayed. Understanding Avizou’s and Cansever’s visions on revitalization and adaptive re-use is substantial since, their creativity shall be a source of inspiration for future sustainable tourism and building practices in local and global context.
Evaluation of Aesthetic, Functional, and Environmental Effects on the Design of Urban Open Spaces: A Case Study of İstanbul Şişhane Park, Turkey (2019-09-08)
Urban spaces reflect the reality of city life, like a mirror. This research aims to examine and analyze the advanced aesthetic, functional, and environmental performance of urban public spaces by assessing the current situation and highlighting the role of creativity in developing these spaces. To clarify the research scope, Şişhane Park in İstanbul, Turkey was studied to define the requirements of creative standards, evaluate these competencies and choose the appropriate architectural style and urban furniture. In addition, to learn ways of preserving those elements for longer life. The analytical descriptive approach was the research method utilized in order to arrive at a set of results that ascertain the reality of the aesthetic, functional, and environmental performance of urban public spaces, and the reflection of the contemporary role in developing these spaces, which can contribute to addressing weaknesses and bolster the strength points in the formation of public urban spaces around the world.
The Role of Changing Housing Policies in Housing Affordability and Accessibility in Developing Countries: The Case of Kenya. (2019-09-08)
Abstract: Rapid urbanization has led to the influx of people into urban areas as people seek better life opportunities. This migration has however largely not been planned, resulting in population explosions in the cities. Relying on existing research on the topic and government reports, this study finds that many middle and low-income families in Kenya have ended up living in informal settlements in urban areas due to housing unaffordability. The study further determines that the problem of housing is more pronounced in developing countries. Studies related to this issue establish that the housing crisis cannot only be attributed to rural-urban migration but also other factors like failed housing policies, poor housing financial systems, too much interference in the running of housing by the government and complex land tenure systems among others. This research, therefore, identifies the critical housing crisis issues, housing policy gaps in Kenya and proposes policy actions and the potential role of governments in a housing market to address affordability challenges. The study establishes the role of government and other institutions in the housing sector and proposes the land and housing reforms which can add knowledge to future research in similar areas.
The Spatial Transformation of the River Waterfront through Three Historical Periods: A Case Study of Belgrade (2019-09-08)
Abstract: Urban renewal of the coastal area has regained importance in recent years. The main problem with the city's coastal area is often the insufficient utilization of its potential. The paper analyzes the process of urbanization and treatment of the waterfront through three historical periods: 1. traditional city, 2. during Modernism and 3. contemporary urbanism. Belgrade is chosen as a case study because it is located on the banks of the two rivers the Sava and the Danube, and throughout history, rivers had a significant role in the urban development of the city. A polygon for the methodology of urban morphological research for this paper was the contrast between the Old Belgrade and traditional city core and the New Belgrade created on the principle of the modern movement in architecture. The paper aims to research the relationship between the city and the river waterfront by the method of compare spatial-temporal transformations and to reveal the positive and negative elements of each period of urbanization. The result of the analysis indicates a changed treatment of the river waterfront through the time - from the fortified city isolated from the river to the gradual descent of the city center near the coast.
The Impact of MCK+ Prangkuti Luhur towards the Improvement of Community Life Quality in Bustaman Village (2019-09-08)
Abstract: At the global level, many efforts to fulfill the availability and access to sanitation have always been the main focus of human development goals and framework at every level of government. In the city level (Semarang), access to sanitation has already started since 2005 when the city government launched a community-based sanitation program in Bustaman Village. There are four locations become pilot project Bustaman village, Plombokan village, Bandarharjo district and Kebonharjo district, and till now only Bustaman village are still running and successful. Based on management in sanitation, this study aims to know the impact of community based sanitation and how community in self-reliance manage MCK+. The method used is a qualitative approach. The analysis conducted is an analysis of knowledge on the impact and how the community manage the sanitation facilities. Research findings showed that the impact of MCK+ are the improved public awareness for healthy and clean living, conscious effort to manage MCK+, making wastes into renewable energy becoming biogas. The existence of an institution named Prangkuti Luhur, which overshadowed the existence of MCK+, continuously form strong social ties, besides cohesion, due to the similarity of fortune. It also strengthened the framework of communal MCK+ institutions in Bustaman Village.