How to Cite this Article:

Akdağ, S. G and Sayar B., (2020). Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use in Cappadocia: A Taxonomy of Creative Design Solutions for Uçhisar Boutique Hotels.  Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 4(2), 37-50. 



                                                                                                                Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs


                                                                                                        2020, Volume 4, Number 2, pages 37– 50



Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use in Cappadocia: A Taxonomy of Creative Design Solutions for
Uçhisar Boutique Hotels

* Asst. Prof. Dr. Suzan Girginkaya Akdağ 1 Image result for research orcid, Phd. Stu. Berna Sayar 2 Image result for research orcid

1 and 2 Faculty of Architecture and Design, Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul, Turkey

1 E mail:   , 2 E mail: 

*Corresponding Author: 

Faculty of Architecture and Design, Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul, Turkey

Email address:




A R T I C L E  I N F O:

Article history:

Received 20 June 2019

Accepted 23 July 2019

Available online 8 September 2019




Adaptive Re-Use;

Sustainable Building;

Sustainable Tourism;

Creative Design;

Vernacular Architecture




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 The "architecture without architect" in Cappadocia has always been fairy due to its volcanic stone formations and transforming silhouettes. In 1973, French architect Jack Avizou highlighted the essence of cave houses as vernacular building types and their potentials for local tourism beyond conventional notions of architectural heritage. Upon completing restoration of cave houses in Uçhisar and transforming them to boutique hotels, he was nominated for Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2010. On the other hand,
Aga Khan Award winner Turkish architect Turgut Cansever, had also been advising for Argos Hotel project in Uçhisar since 1996. He gave importance to the concept of "protection" and preserved vernacular identity and characteristics despite the demands of tourism sector. This paper aims to explore Avizou and Cansever’s design solutions in Uçhisar’s local context. Building / interior design elements and spatial relations in interiors will be analyzed with cluster analysis and ranked according to levels of novelty. Hence, achievement of creativity through transformation, combination and variation of original designs, will be displayed. Understanding Avizou’s and Cansever’s visions on revitalization and adaptive re-use is substantial since, their creativity shall be a source of inspiration for future sustainable tourism and building practices in local and global context.




Journal Of CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2020), 4(2), 37-50. 




Copyright © 2019 Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

For economic growth, especially during times of financial crises, tourism is regarded as an accelerator. The UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) research demonstrated that interest in the environment, culture and heritage is a primary motivation for more than 50% of travel, and is consistently growing as a market sector (Brooks, 2011). According to the Council of Europe (Faro Convention, 2005), cultural heritage is valuable in itself and for the ‘contribution it can make to other policies’. Many countries have invested large sums in the restoration of various historical sites with the aim of maintaining jobs in the tourism sector and using cultural heritage as a tool to stimulate cultural and economic development in a period of economic recession (Inkei, 2011). Hence, construction industry and small and medium-size businesses are being preserved besides historic monuments and sites. Beyond economy, cultural tourism has significant socio-cultural and environmental impacts on host society.

During World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD – Johannesburg, 2002), it was stated that: "The contribution that tourism can make to poverty alleviation, to conservation of the natural and cultural heri­tage, and to overall sustainable development can be substantial. This is especially so in developing countries, where natural resources and landscapes are still relatively untouched and where few other activities have a sustainable development potential, from an economic or environmental perspective. Furthermore, tourism has proved to be in many countries a much more sustainable development option that intensive agriculture, forestry, extractive mining or other primary activities".

Thus, cities themselves have already become products within the economy of consumption. The identity of cities or areas have been redesigned, presented and consumed steadily. In global competition and mobility of tourism, field branding strategies are applied for increasing the cities’ recognition, recalling their identities and main characteristics and developing new strategies for their consumption (Zhang and Zhao, 2009). Efficient city branding depends on the identification of main characteristics of the city including its identity, historical, cultural activities, demographic characteristics, economy, perception of the city and experiences of people etc.

Hence, cultural heritage with its overall physical, diverse and intangible components require new strategies of preservation, renovation and adaption. For preserving cultural heritage, The Council of Europe (1985) suggested use of protected goods in the light of modern living needs; adaptation of old buildings for new purposes (when possible); and harmonization of the needs for protection with the needs of modern economic, social and cultural activities. As shown in Table 1, revitalization and adaptive re-use of heritage buildings and sites are rooted in a number of disciplines including economy, sustainable tourism, tourism marketing, city branding, preservation and sustainable building. The aim of this paper is to inspect sustainable design strategies applied in revitalization of Cappadocia as a tourism center. Case study will focus on adaptive re-use of cave houses as boutique hotels.


Table 1. Theories of Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use in Sustainable Tourism and Building (Developed by Authors)


1.1 Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use of Heritage Buildings and Sites

In tourism, consumers’ motivations and behaviours are increasingly characterized by a more selective choice of destination, a greater attention to the tourism experience and its quality, a greater sensitivity to the environment, vernacular culture and local people at the destinations. Hence, cultural tourism and its sustainability is possible through preservation of vernacular identity and characteristics. Applying determined place / urban identity in all areas of design (in a collective manner), is an advertising and marketing technique for place branding (Usal, 2012). Therefore, contemporary strategies and practices have been shaped around revitalization and adaptive use of heritage buildings and sites.

Vernacular architecture is a great source for architects, urban planners, and relevant service providers who are expected to develop sensitive scenarios to physical, economic, social and environmental needs. In vernacular architecture, physical characteristics of the region including the climate, tectonics and landscape blends with cultural and social values. Vernacular architecture, as a result of hundreds of years of experience, is efficient in meeting the needs of local environmental conditions and quality of life. Vernacular buildings require less energy for their construction, operation and maintenance thus, they are sensitive to the nature and their environments.

In Turkey, several architects in their projects have successfully integrated vernacular design principles that determine the sustainable identity of vernacular architecture. The architect Turgut Cansever, who later advised for Argos Boutique Hotel in Cappadocia, was awarded three times with international Aga Khan Award for his contributions to vernacular architecture along with urban and rural development policies. Cansever’s projects Ahmet Ertegun House (1980), Turkish History Foundation Building (1980) and Demir Holiday Village (1992) were all found to be valuable for their sensitive approaches to economic and environmental problems. This paper includes samples from Cansever’s design approach to Cappadocia as well as French architect Avizou, who was the first figure to emphasize the significance of vernacular architecture and highlight its potentials for tourism in the region.


2. Vernacular Architecture in Cappadocia

Cappadocia; was shaped 60 million years ago with lava and ashes of Erciyes, Hasandağı and Güllüdağ mountains and erosion of these soft layers rain by the wind and rain during millions of years. Throughout history, many civilizations including Assyrian trade colonies, Hittites, Persians, Romans, Anatolian Seljuks, Karamanoğulları and Ottomans have settled on this land. Traditional Cappadocia settlements were independent of strict design rules. Cave settlements were formed in centuries as a result of natural and human forces by abrasion and friction. Caves provided various functions such as sheltering, worship, defence, burial place, storage and transition tunnels. Easy digging of shelters facilitated expansions and connections with new corridors and stairs on need. People developed their defence mechanisms skilfully upon discovering the suitability of caves for hiding and defending. Therefore, cave houses scattered on the sloping terrain, have become the characteristic pattern of Cappadocian architecture. They featured rational and creative solutions, which were shaped around principles of sustainability.

The streets in Cappadocia conformed to topographical features. They were usually scaled according to dimensions which allowed animals (carrying human load) could pass. These organic streets were limited either by wood / stone cantilevered building masses, high garden or courtyard walls, depending on regional characteristics. Cappadocian settlements; could be classified in three categories including underground carved settlement, slope carved settlement and rock carved settlement. Stea and Turan (1993) termed them as carved-out spaces (lithospace) and built-out spaces (terrapace) during their investigation on placemaking and developed a model for housing patterns in Cappadocia (Table 2).


Table 2. Housing Patterns in Cappadocia (adaptation from text by Stea and Turan, 1993)

Cappadocia Housing

Carved-out housing

Built-out housing

        Negative space


        Away from the surface

        Provides a strong defense mechanism with its depth and camouflage

        Positive space


        Close to the surface

        Indicates social status/ respectability of its owner in community(in terms of size and decorative elements)

Stone was the main building material of Cappadocia region, due to its volcanic land. It was soft and easily processed when it came out of the quarry, but after contact with air it became hard and very durable for building.                                   Local people, who used to live in rock-carved spaces at first, started applying fine stone work to architectural structures. The most glorious built-up Cappadocia houses began to emerge in 19th century with post-Tanzimat influences. Houses began growing in size and decorations appeared on facades. Ornamented mouldings, cantilevers and doors / windows converted to sculptures, appeared as authentic works of this late period. The stone called "kepez" also contained different color shades. Its porous structure provided serious insulation against heat. Its abundance, easy processing and thermal insulation has made stone workmanship a traditional construction technique in Cappadocia. In its history, a guild of 700 masters practicing in the region was noted (URL 1). Natural stone (volcanic tuff) offered unlimited possibilities, especially in terms of architecture: from small to enourmous scaled caves with a variety of curves, roughness and textures in walls. Everything was designed according to user's lifestyle and daily actions. Types of housing varied from "carved", "semi-carved-semi-masonry" and "masonry” (Binan, 1994). Main components of carved space were living spaces, kitchens, cellars, warehouses, tandoor houses, places of worship, barns and stables etc. In addition, water wells and ventilation chimneys were indispensable in the underground world. All of the rooms opened to a "hayat" surrounded by high courtyard walls.

Cappadocia houses, had not been of interest for many years and were faced with collapse and disappearance. However, with revival of tourism after 1970’s, Cappadocia region started to gain importance. New functions such as hotels, pensions, restaurants, discotheques, cafes and shops etc. were given to renovated historical buildings and put into service for tourism. In 1982, The Ministry of Culture launched a rescue operation. In 1985, preservation of heritage rock was finally recognized as “World Heritage” by UNESCO (Figure 1). The vaults carved into the lava stones in these primitive settlements started to take place on touristic media and marketing mediums all over the world.


Figure 1. Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (URL 2).

3. Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use of Vernacular Houses for Tourism in Uçhisar

The best example of settlements, carved into rocks, is Uçhisar Castle and its surroundings. Uçhisar, is the highest rock in the region. The horizon to be seen 90 km to the east, leads to the assumption that it was one of the attractive points preferred for asylum by the first Christians, who fled from the Romans. Turks moved to Anatolia in the 11th century and preferred to settle in the old settlements. They also utilized Uçhisar as a protection and defence center in Seljukid, Beyliks and Ottoman Periods (Cimşit, 2007). 

As a neglected historical site, Uçhisar was identified as disaster area in the 1960s and was abandoned with support of the state. On leaving, many of the villagers removed stones from their original houses and used them to build their new houses. Hence, the village was ruined by the end of the 70s. On the other hand, Club-Med Hotel (1968-2005) opened and attracted international interest, mainly of French. Within time, Uçhisar has become a favourable destination for Belgium, Italian, American and Japanese tourists as well Turks from all over the country due to its suitable weather conditions between May and October. Development of similar infrastructures and services in Uçhisar has been boosting the tourism and related sectors in recent years (Figure 2).


Figure 2. Revitalization of Uçhisar (URL 3).


Uçhisar is a defensive hill settlement. However, its stone and rock formation is problematic due to its softness, loose porosity and dune layers in between etc. Hence, structures in Uçhisar were built smaller compared to other regions with big cave monasteries. In addition to caves; additional rooms with flat roofs were built. They were built out of cut stone on rock carvings. These rooms, owing temperature and humidity regulations, had climatic advantages over caves (Figure 3).



Figure 4. Restoration of Vernacular Housing by Avizou- for Les Maisons de Cappadoce (URL 6).


Due to poverty in Uçhisar, ground floor walls were built with more modest materials such as rubble / rough stones. Cut stone was only used at upper elevations. In Uçhisar houses; rooms were arranged around a common living area (inner courtyard). Decorations were sparse. Upper floor ceilings were covered with poplar structures called 'hezen'. The wood was scarce in ornamentation since the area was lacking trees. Wood was only used for doors in courtyards and interiors.


Figure 3. Vernacular Architecture in Uçhisar (URL 4).


3.1 Les Maisons de Cappadoce

The adaptation of ​​cave houses for contemporary use was initially introduced to Uçhisar by French architect Jack Avizou. Overwhelmed by the book called ‘Architecture without Architects’ (Rudofsky, 1964) and his touristic visits to Cappadocia, Avizou settled in Uçhisar in 1993. He set up a firm operating in architecture and tourism sectors. He bought 17 cave houses abandoned by villagers and converted them into boutique hotels with total 31 rooms. Avizou explained his efforts: 'Politicians were always discussing about especially on the frescoes of the old chapels. I introduced the concept of heritage and restoration in this region' (URL 5). According to Avizou’s vision; bakery ovens, wine cellars, stairs carved into rocks, terraces and inner gardens started to appear in the middle of the isolated and striking Cappadocia landscape. He was inspired by vernacular art for decoration and used it in a simple style for authentic comfort. He designed interiors with pottery, rugs and carpets. He redesigned the local Turkish primitive human settlements according to French taste and later marketed them via his tourism company (Figure 4). The project was nominated for Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2010 for its impetus throughout the region, due to renovation of vernacular structures and revival of traditional crafts.



3.2. Argos in Cappadocia

Argos in Cappadocia, is a restoration project of an old neighbourhood, which earlier was removed away stone by stone and became an excavation area in 1970’s. The founding partner of the Argos in Cappadocia hotel, Gökşin Ilıcalı, discovered Uçhisar in 1996 and decided to make a tourism investment through restoration. He hired Aga Khan awarded Turkish architect, Turgut Cansever for his master knowledge and former practices on vernacular architecture. During restoration, Cansever put emphasis was laid on vernacularity, respect for history and importance of the place. The stone houses, which had been removed, were traced and spaces in between were designated according to the needs of the new function (Figure 5). The new layout, with original traces, was called as "içinden köy geçen otel / the village with a reception desk" by Architect Özbay, the current coordinator of the project (URL 7).


Figure 5. Restoration of Vernacular Housing Consulted by Cansever for Argos (URL 8).


Keeping the new behind the original, respect for traditional textures and priority of local crafts, were effective strategies in the success of final product. The project took a long time due to several stages. Masters of traditional crafts were seeked to train new craftsmen. The initial tourism company owning Argos was purchased in 2014 by a big Hotel Investments Group. With ongoing restoration work, Argos in Cappadocia has received several global and national awards (Table 3).


Table 3. Global and National Awards of Argos (Developed by Authors based on info at URL 9).


         Excellence (Trip Advisor, 2010)

         World's Newest and Best 45 Hotels ( Travel+Leisure , 2010)

         "The most environmentally friendly projects in the world" (Conde Nast, 2010)

         "The Most romantic hotels in the world" (Conde Nast, 2011)

         ‘Silver Magellan’ at "The Most Luxury Hotel and Resort in the World" (Travel Weekly, 2011)
”Boutique and Private Meeting Facilities“ (1st Congress, Meeting and Event Awards - ACE of M.I.C.E, 2012)

         "Turkey's Best Boutique Hotel Investment" (Turkey's Most Successful Tourism Investment Survey, 2013)

         "Top 100 Hotels in the World " (Fodor's, 2014)

         "Best Hotels in the World" Categories (Travellers Choice, 2015)

         ‘5 Stars’ at 'Best Hotel' and ‘Sustainable Hotel’ Categories (International Hotel Awards, 2015)

        'Global First' at "The Most Beautiful Historic Luxury Hotel' Category (World Luxury Hotel Awards, 2016).


4. Methodology and Case Study

This paper focuses on utilization of vernacular building / interior design elements for adaptive  re-use of cavehouses as boutique hotels. Case studies will include two awarded projects: Les Maisons de Cappadoce and Argos in Cappadocia (Table 4). First of all, images of selected elements will be classified with cluster analysis. Indeed, the concept of classification is noted as the building block for most of the cognitive capabilities human possess (Gagne, 1985). With classification, one can understand interrelationships of similar things together, based on a set of criteria or characteristics. Classification by architectural elements (Purini, 1968), allows categorization of large databases of building elements into semantic categories such as; certain historic periods, styles, cultural influences and functions . After classification of building / interior design elements, their original and new uses will be compared according to levels of novelty. The model used in the study is ‘taxonomy of creative design’ by Nilsson (2011), which offers a progression from imitation to original creation (Figure 6). It helps to organize creative works into an inclusive, unifying landscape that serves as an analytical tool for evaluating creative work, and also as a methodical approach for developing creative skills. Today, Avizou’s and Cansever’s visions on adaptive re-use of cave houses are still inspiring current boutique hotel design projects. Therefore, this research intends to display the novelty of their design solutions and display their contributions to sustainable development of local economy, tourism and building sectors.


 Figure 6. Taxonomy of Creative Design (URL 10).



4.1 Findings

The common point for both projects is their respect and emphasis for preserving the rich heritage of vernacular culture. In Cappadocia, adaptive re-use of vernacular housing as boutique hotels has brought many economic benefits and improved quality of life for residents. Table 4, displays adaptive re-use scenarios of Les Maisons de Cappadoce and Argos in timeline.


Table 4. Adaptive Re-use Scenarios (Developed by Authors based on info at URL 11).

Property Name

Original Use

New Use

The benefit

Les Maisons de Cappadoce


Cave house


Boutique Hotel

Initialization of the concept of heritage and restoration in Cappadocia

Argos Stage 1


Mansion ‘ManastırKonak’

Monastery church from 4th-5th century

Caravanserai or oil mill


Cultural and social events, (concerts, exhibitions and theater performances, festive receptions, media conferences, lectures, symposia, fashion shows etc.

Argos Stage 2



‘Tüneli Konak’

Roman water tunnel with 5.5 km length

Public circulation tunnel and suite room

The first suite room with a pool inside

Argos Stage 3



‘Vasil Konak’


Boutique Hotel

Open to public

Provides street-courtyard-panorama connections

Argos Stage 4



‘Gemil Konak’


Boutique Hotel

Suite rooms with common facilities: restaurant, kitchen, bar, lounge / lobby.

Argos  Stage 5



‘White Konak’


Boutique Hotel

Suite rooms

Argos Stage 6



‘Tıraz Konak’


Boutique Hotel

Suite rooms

Argos Stage 7



‘Kavak Konak’


Boutique Hotel

Suite room with

"şırahane" (traditional kitchen) and "peynir odası" (cold storage)

Argos Stage 8


Personnel Building


Personnel Building


A large cafeteria and kitchen in basement, and dressing and relaxation rooms on upper floors for hotel staff

Argos Stage 9


Museum Saloon

Caravanserai or oil mill


Multi-use hall

Boutique Hotel

Exhibition of  historic mill beds and mule circulation

Ladies’ house


Two heritage school buildings from Republican Period

A restaurant and shop for jewelry and food products

Handmade by Uçhisar ladies.





Following tables 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are taxonomies of adaptive re-use design guidelines according to levels of novelty in ‘Fitting to Topography, Spatial  Layout, Vernacular Construction Technics and Material, Interior Furnishing and Ethnographic Elements’.


Table 5. Taxonomy of Design Guideline ‘Fitting to Topography’ according to Levels of Novelty.
(Les Maisons de Cappadoce; URL 12, Argos in Cappadocia; URL 13)

Original Architectural / Interior Design

Transformation/ Combination/ Variation


Les Maisons de Cappadoce by Avizou

Fitting to topography

Building types



Vertical circulation elements

(staircases, ramps, etc.)



Argos in Cappadocia consulted by Cansever

Fitting to

Building types





Vertical circulation elements
(staircases, ramps, etc.)


E:\suzandan argos\IMG_0066.JPG




























Table 5, displays designers’ levels of novelty in designing ‘Fitting to Topography’ criteria.



Therefore, both projects have made remarkable contributions to sustainable economic growth. Additionally, young architects and interns were accepted to practice in Argos restoration works. Besides support for architectural education, new and original knowledge was introduced to architectural history and theory through findings on heritage sites.




Table 6. Taxonomy of Design Guideline ‘Spatial Layout’ according to Levels of Novelty.

(Les Maisons de Cappadoce; URL 12, Argos in Cappadocia; URL 13)

Original Architectural / Interior Design

Transformation/ Combination/ Variation


Les Maison Cappadocia by Avizou

Spatial Layout

Organization of

interior spaces






Inner Courtyard


Terrace with panorama


Water element


Shading Element



Facade ornamentation

Argos in Cappadocia consulted by Cansever


Organization of interior spaces








Inner Courtyard




Terrace with Panorama




E:\suzandan argos\IMG_0120.JPG


Water Element




Shading Element




Facade Element





Table 6, displays designers’ levels of novelty in designing ‘Spatial Layout’ criteria.



Table 7. Taxonomy of Design Guideline ‘Vernacular Construction Technics and Materials’ according to Levels of Novelty.     (Les Maisons de Cappadoce; URL 12, Argos in Cappadocia; URL 13)

Original Architectural / Interior Design

Transformation/ Combination/ Variation


Les Maisons de Cappadoce by Avizou

Vernacular Construction


and Materials

Wall types & coverings


Facade openings

(Doorways & windows)

Ceiling structures

Argos in Cappadocia consulted by Cansever

Construction Technics

and Materials

Wall Types & Coverings





(Doorways & Windows)


E:\suzandan argos\IMG_0080.JPG




Ceiling structures


E:\suzandan argos\IMG_0076.JPG



Table 7, displays levels of novelty in ‘Vernacular Construction Technics and Materials’ criteria.



Table 8. Taxonomy of Design Guideline ‘Interior Furnishing’ according to Levels of Novelty.
(Les Maisons de Cappadoce; URL 12, Argos in Cappadocia; URL 13)

Original Architectural / Interior Design

Transformation/ Combination/ Variation


Les Maison Cappadocia by Avizou

Interior furnishing

Level difference


Niches for display


Wood furniture


Stone furniture


Seating inside


Fire place


Argos in Cappadocia consulted by Cansever

Interior Furnishing

Level difference




Niches for display


E:\Argos\-Argos In Cappadocia (7).jpg


Wood furniture




Seating inside






Fire place





Table 8, displays designers’ levels of novelty in designing ‘Interior Furnishing’ criteria.



Table 9. Taxonomy of Design Guideline ‘Ethnographia’ according to Levels of Novelty.
(Les Maisons de Cappadoce; URL 12, Argos in Cappadocia; URL 13)

Original Architectural / Interior Design

Transformation/ Combination/ Variation


Les Maison Cappadocia by Avizou




Antique houseware &daily items



Argos in Cappadocia consulted by Cansever






Antique houseware & daily items





E:\suzandan argos\IMG_0117.JPG


E:\Argos\-Argos In Cappadocia (14).jpg

Table 9, displays designers’ level of novelty in ‘Ethnographia’ critera.



5. Conclusion

The two adaptive re-use projects introduced in this paper, display creative design solutions while preserving the vernacular identity and characteristics. Classification of spatial elements and relations, helped further analysis of both projects according to levels of novelty that range from original and imitation. Within this taxonomy, the two architects’ design solutions mostly revealed transformation, combination and variation of vernacular design guidelines such as: ‘fitting to topography, spatial layout, vernacular construction technics and material, interior furnishing and ethnographic elements’. The respect for originality has dominated both projects. They displayed few imitated design solutions, which may have been added later by other decision makers than the master architects themselves.

It is also important to highlight the coherency of sustainable building solutions between implementation phases and after-use scenarios of both projects. Use of local material and craftsmanship, training of stone masons, carpenters and other construction workers, engagement of young architects and intern students in the building and restoration process have provided many job opportunities in poor village of Uçhisar. The economic development, which initiated with construction work, has been further sustained through the business model of boutique hotels. Vernacular lifestyle has also been marketed according to the requirements of tourism sector. Alternative experience-based activities have been proposed such as; tasting wine in platform terraces, eating and drinking in cafes and restaurants of Argos, walking tours in between fairy chimneys under moonlight, meeting opportunities in the restorated oil mill ‘Bezirhane’, entertaining in music, well-being and gourmet themed festival Cappadox, and shopping handmade local products. With increasing number of such creative design solutions, which have all been inspired by vernacular architecture, revitalization and adaptive re-use in Cappadocia have generated a sustainable business model embracing local economy, tourism and building sectors.



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Conflict of interests

The Authors declare no conflict of interest.



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How to Cite this Article:

Akdağ, S. G and Sayar B., (2020). Revitalization and Adaptive Re-use in Cappadocia: A Taxonomy of Creative Design Solutions for Uçhisar Boutique Hotels.  Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 4(2), 37-50.



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