Density, Energy and Metabolism of a proposed smart city
Keywords:Smart cities, Energy, Waste, Blackouts, Density, Mumbai, Globalization, Urban sprawl
This paper reports on a detailed analysis of the metabolism of the Island City of Mumbai should the Indian Government’s proposal for ‘smart’ cities be implemented. It focuses on the environmental impact of increased population density achieved by demolishing existing medium-rise (3-5 storey) housing and replacing it with the proposed high-rise (40-60 storey) towers. The resulting increase in density places a burden on the demand on such things as electricity and water and simultaneously increases the output flows of drainage, solid waste and greenhouse gas production.
An extended urban metabolism analysis is carried out on a proposed development in Mumbai (Bhendi Bazaar) that has been put forward as an exemplar case study by the Government. The flows of energy, water and wastes are calculated based on precedents and from first principles. The results of the case study are then extrapolated across the City in order to identify the magnitude of increased demands and wastes should the ‘smart’ city proposals be fully realised. Mumbai is the densest city in the world. It already suffers from repeated blackouts, water rationing and inadequate waste and sewage treatment. The results of the study indicate, on a per capita basis, increasing density will have a significant further detrimental effect on the environment.
Albino, V., Berardi, U., Dangelico, R. (2015) Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives. Journal of Urban Technology. Vol. 22, No. 1, 3–21.
BBC News. (2002, May 30) Indian state curbs electricity to industry BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/2016611.stm
Bertaud, A. (2013, June) Mumbai Far/Fsi Conundrum: The perfect storm: the four factors restricting the construction of new floor space in Mumbai. Retrieved from http://alainbertaud.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/AB-Mumbai-FSI-Conundrun-Revised_June-2013_kk-ab1.pdf
BS Reporter. (2006, 17 October). Mumbai facing power shortage, Business Standard Retrieved from http://www.business‐standard.com/india/news/mumbai‐facing‐power‐shortage/261974/
Byrd, H. (2012) Post-occupancy evaluation of green buildings: the measured impact of over-glazing. Architectural Science Review, 55 (3). pp. 206-212
Byrd, H., & Nash, E. (2012) Maths and myths behind a low carbon Auckland. Working Paper. Transforming Cities, Auckland. Retrieved from http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/7822/
Byrd, H. & Matthewman, S. (2014a) Lights out: the dark future of electric power. New Scientist (2968).
Byrd, H. & Matthewman, S. (2014b) Exergy and the city: the technology and sociology of power (failure). Journal of Urban Technology, 21 (3). pp. 85-102.
Byrd, H., Ho, A., Sharp, B. & Kumar N., N. (2013) Measuring the solar potential of a city and its implications for energy policy. Journal of Energy Policy, 61. pp. 944-952.
Census of India. (2011a). Census 2011. Retrieved from http://www.census2011.co.in
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (2010) Remaking Sustainable Cities in the Vertical Age. Retrieved from http://www.ctbuh.org/Events/Conferences/Mumbai2010/tabid/1391/language/en‐US/Default.aspx
Gosh, S. (2010) Status of thermal power generation in India—Perspectives on capacity, generation and carbon dioxide emissions. Energy Policy 38, pp6886–6899
Nia, H. (2017). Identity in Changing Context: Factors of losing Identity in new developed part of the city of Famagusta, North Cyprus. Contemporary Urban Affairs, 1(2), 1-10. Doi: 10.25034/ijcua.2017.3644
Gosh, S., Vale, R. & Vale, B. (2006.)Domestic energy sustainability of different urban residential patterns: a New Zealand approach. International Journal of Sustain- able Development 9(1), 16–37.
Government of India (2015a) Smart Cities Mission; strategy. Retrieved from http://smartcities.gov.in/writereaddata/Strategy.pdf
Government of India. (2015b) Smart Cities Mission; what is a smart city. Retrieved from. http://smartcities.gov.in/writereaddata/What%20is%20Smart%20City.pdf
Hammer, S., Kamal-Chaoui, L. & Robert, A. and M. Plouin. (2011) Cities and Green Growth: A Conceptual Framework,
OECD Regional Development Working Papers 08, OECD Publishing, 2011.
Kumar, R., Subramaniam, J., & Patil, D. (2000). Water Quality Modelling of Municipal Discharges from Sea Outfalls, Mumbai. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (62), 119–132.
Leung, A. (2016, February 8) The Key to Green Cities and Mindsets: Densification. Meeting of the Minds. Retrieved from. http://cityminded.org/the-key-to-green-cities-and-mindsets-densification-14887
Mandal, A. (2015) Density, intensification and urban Redevelopment: The metabolism of Mumbai. PhD thesis, The University of Auckland https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/25956
Mandal, A. & Byrd, H. (2013) Limits to urban growth: the case of Mumbai. In: Twentieth International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF), 17-20 July 2013, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
MCGM. (2005 to 2025a). Chapter 2: Mumbai today: Present status (2.7. Solid Waste Management) Greater Mumbai City Development Plan. Mumbai.
MCGM. (2005 to 2025b). Chapter 2: Mumbai today: Present status (2.13. Urban Basic Services) Greater Mumbai City Development Plan. Mumbai.
Myors, P., O’Leary, R. & Helstroom,R. (2005, October 8) Multi-unit residential buildings energy and peak demand study. Report for Energy Australia and NSW Dept. of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources. Retrieved from. http://www.ausgrid.com.au/Common/Our-network/Demand-management-and-energy-efficiency/Energy-use-facts-and-figures/~/media/Files/Network/Demand%20Management/Energy%20use%20resources/Networks_multi_unit_sumrep_Oct08.pdf
Newman, P., Birrell, B., Holmes, D., Mathers, C., Newton, P., Oakley, G. & Tait, D. (1996). Human Settlements Australia: State of the Environment: Environment Australia, Dept. of the Environment.
Newman, P. & Kenworty, J. (1989) Gasoline consumption and cities. Journal of the American Planning Association. 55(1), 24‐37
Perkins, A, Hamnett, S., Pullen, S., Zito, R. & Trebilcock, D. (2009) Transport, Housing and Urban Form: The Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Emissions of City Centre Apartments Compared with Suburban Dwellings. Urban Policy and Research 27,4 ,377-396
Rathod, K (2012) Mumbai's realty: going vertical with a vengeance. Retrieved from. http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report-mumbai-s-realty-going-vertical-with-a-vengeance-1745748
Rediff News. (2007, 03 April). Can Mumbai escape power cuts?, Rediff News (Business Standard). Retrieved from http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/apr/03guest1.htm
Remaking of Mumbai Federation. (2008-2014). Cessed properties: Historical context. Need for remaking.
Retrieved from http://www.romf.org/need%20for%20remaking/cessed%20properties.aspx
Rode, P., Keim, C., Robazza, G., Viejo, P. & Schofield, J (2014): Cities and Energy: Urban Morphology and Residential Heat Energy Demand. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 41(1): 138 – 162
Sen, S. (2009, 12 December). No water for new Mumbai towers, Times of India
Steadman, P. (2015) High-Rise Buildings: Energy and Density. Retriev
ed from http://www.createstreets.com/essays/4589645470
Sridhar, K. (2010) Impact of Land Use Regulations: Evidence from India’s Cities. Urban Studies, 47(7), 1541–1569
sustainablecitiesnetwork. (2011 July 13). How much green space does your city have? (originally by Marcelino Vazquez). Retrieved from http://blog.sustainablecities.net/2011/07/13/how-many-metres-of-green-space-does-your-city-have/
Tembhekar, C. (2009, December 23). ACs eat up 40% of city's total power consumption, The Times of India. Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/ACs-eat-up-40-of-citys-total-power-consumption/articleshow/5368121.cms?referral=PM A
Tembhekar, C. (2011) Thirst for power will see demand in Mumbai rise by 886MW. The Times of India. Retrieved from http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-10-27/mumbai/30327683_1_power-requirement-electricity-generation-capacity-power-generation
Yelda, S. (2006) Dynamics of environmental problems in Mumbai. Journal of Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, 8: 182–187
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.