Sustainable Construction for Affordable Housing Program in Kabul




earth construction, local materials, sun-dried brick, compressive earth block, stabilization


Afghanistan suffers from four decades of war, caused a massive migration of the rural population to the cities. Kabul was originally designed for 1,5 million people, where now 5 million people live. The importation of modern western styles housing for rapid reconstruction reveals apparent cultural conflict and significant environmental footprint. The new constructive cultures for sustainable reconstruction should necessary consider the use of local materials combined with modern technologies. Earthen architecture underlies the embodiment of Afghanistan architecture. The aim of this research is to revisit traditional afghan earthen construction with the tools of industrial modernity. Three soils of the Kabul region were first characterized. Then, sun-dried mud brick and compressive earth block, with and without stabilization have been prepared and tested in the laboratory to develop the most suitable earth construction element which is cost effective and easily available compared to the imported modern products.


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Author Biographies

PhD Candidate Mohammadullah Hakim Ebrahimi, Construction Faculty, Kabul Polytechnic University, Afghanistan

Mr. Hakim-Ebrahim Mohammadullah is a PhD researcher and an assistant professor at Kabul Polytechnic University -Afghanistan. His research area concerns Architecture and Material Engineering. He focuses on affordable housing issues in Afghanistan and he is going to develop a model for affordable housing programs in Kabul city. He is the author of three journal and conference papers and also seven national papers.

ORCID Number:

(+93) 744 340 044

Professor Dr. Philippe Devillers, LIFAM, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Montpellier, France

Mr. Devillers Philippe is a Professor at Montpellier architecture school – France. Its current research themes focus on eco-oriented design, environmental performance of buildings, economic and social impact of buildings, and development of local, natural and human resources.

ORCID Number:

(+33) 467 918 989

Professor Dr. Eric Garcia-Diaz, LMGC, IMT Mines Ales, University of Montpellier, CNRS, France

Mr. Garcia-Diaz Eric is a Professor at IMT Mines Alès – France. His research topics concern concrete mix design and durability of concrete. He focuses on low carbon concrete by optimization of concrete aggregate skeleton and volume paste ratios and also by the use of alternative materials as recycled concrete aggregate, earth materials and bio-based materials.

ORCID Number:

(+33) 466 785 000


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How to Cite

Ebrahimi, M. H., Devillers, P., & Garcia-Diaz, E. (2022). Sustainable Construction for Affordable Housing Program in Kabul. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 6(1), 23–35.