The Impact of Transit-Oriented Development on Fast-Urbanizing Cities: Applied analytical study on Greater Cairo Region

Authors

  • MS.c. Mohamed Kafrawy Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6461-6643
  • Professor Dr. Sahar Attia Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt
  • Professor Dr. Heba Allah Khalil Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2022.v6n1-8

Keywords:

Transit-oriented Development, Fast-Urbanizing cities, Sustainable transportation, Sustainable development, Greater Cairo region

Abstract

Transportation has always been the backbone of development. Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been theorized, piloted and expanded increasingly in the past few decades. In this regard, this paper investigates the relationship between urban development, the transportation process, and the required implementation guidelines within fast-urbanizing cities, such as Cairo. After reviewing different related sustainable development theories, the study investigates pioneering case studies that have applied TOD and provided adequate implementation frameworks. The authors then extract and compare a set of required policies. The current Egyptian development paradigm is then discussed in relation to these enabling policies, focusing on Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. The authors debate previous development plans, progress, and newly proposed ones, focusing on the transportation process as the means for development. The study concludes with a set of required guidelines to ensure the integration of transportation with land-use planning, thus ensuring a more prosperous and inclusive urban development.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Metrics

Author Biographies

Professor Dr. Sahar Attia, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Dr. Sahar Attia, is an Emeritus Professor of urban design at the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University. She has been the Head of the Department of Architecture in the same institution from 2013-2017. She has 40 years of experience practising and teaching urban planning, urban design, and architecture. She is currently a member of the Supreme Council of Urban Development in Egypt, a member of the Stakeholders Advisory Group Enterprise (SAGE) UN-Habitat, She is also the co-chair of the University Network Initiative -UN-Habitat (UNI),  and a board member in Ecocity Builders, a non-profit public benefit corporation in SF California-USA.

She is the Co-Editor of: “Dynamics And Resilience Of Informal Areas: International Perspectives” (2016), “New Cities and Community Extensions in Egypt and the Middle East” (2018), “Cultural Sustainable Tourism” (2019), and “Ecocities Now” (2020), all four published by Springer. In January 2021, she has been appointed a member of the Egyptian Parliament, and a member of the Science & technology working group in the International Parliamentary Union (IPU).

Professor Dr. Heba Allah Khalil, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Khalil is a professor of sustainable urbanism at the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University and the Senior Coordinator of the Architectural Engineering and Technology AET program at Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University with 20 years of academic and professional experience. She teaches and conducts research in community development, informal areas, urban climate, and integrated urban systems with several publications including books and journal papers. She has built several international research partnerships focusing on urban metabolism and improving urban micro-climate in highly dense cities through material flow analysis, simulation, and participatory action research. More recently, she started a research project focusing on gender equity and cities and another on land governance. Professionally, she also works as an architect, urban planner, community facilitator and housing expert with multi-scale agencies, authorities, and clients both local and international. She has worked for multiple public agencies and international organizations on urban development, strategic planning and housing programs including World Bank, Washington DC, USA; UN-Habitat, Egypt, and local authorities in Egypt. As an Alumna of SPURS, MIT, Dr. Khalil continuously seeks partnerships to support a new planning and design practice for sustainable urbanism in her region. Khalil holds a PhD in architectural engineering from Cairo University and has been granted the Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship in urban studies at MIT.

References

Boarnet, M., & Crane, R. C. (2001). Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195123951.003.0008

Bohrn, T., & Buehler, R. (2015). Managing Director, Vienna Regional Public Transport Association. person interview conducted by Ralph Buehler in Vienna, Austria on May, 12, 2015.

Breheny, M. (1996). Centrists, decentrists and compromisers: views on the future of urban form. In Elizabeth Burton, Mike Jenks, & K. Williams (Eds.), The compact city: A sustainable urban form? (pp. 13-35). E & FN Spon London.

Buehler, R., Pucher, J., & Altshuler, A. (2017). Vienna's path to sustainable transport. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(4), 257-271. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2016.1251997

CTOD. (2010). Creating Successful Transit Oriented Districts in Los Angeles:. Los Angloss: Center For Transit Oriented Development.

De Vos, J., Van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2014). The influence of attitudes on Transit-Oriented Development: An explorative analysis. Transport Policy, 35, 326-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.04.004

Dock, F. C., & Swenson, C. J. (2003). Transit-Oriented Urban Design Impacts on Suburban Land Use and Transportation Planning. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1831(1), 184-192. https://doi.org/10.3141/1831-21

Downs, A. (2005). Smart Growth: Why We Discuss It More than We Do It. Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(4), 367-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360508976707

Farr, D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design With Nature. John Wiley & Sons.

Hasic, T. (2000). A Sustainable Urban Matrix. In E. Burton, M. Jenks, & K. Williams (Eds.), Achieving Sustainable Urban Form (pp. 329-336). London: E&FN Spon.

Herry, M. (2015, May 12). Consultant, Director, Herry Consulting. (R. Buehler, Interviewer) [Interview].

Holden, E. (2004). Ecological footprints and sustainable urban form. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 19(1), 91-109. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOHO.0000017708.98013.cb

Høyer, K. G., & Holden, E. (2003). Household Consumption and Ecological Footprints in Norway – Does Urban Form Matter? Journal of Consumer Policy, 26(3), 327-349. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025680422704

IPPUC. (2000). A historia do sistema do transporte coletivo de Curitiba. Curitiba: Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano de Curitiba.

Iravani, H., & Rao, V. (2020). The effects of New Urbanism on public health. Journal of Urban Design, 25(2), 218-235. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2018.1554997

JICA. (2002). Transportation Master Plan and Feasibility Study of Urban Transport Projects in Greater Cairo Region in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Cairo: Japan International Cooperation Agency. https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11709938_01.pdf

Kaufmann, V. (2011). Rethinking the city: Urban duynamics and motility. Lausanne: EPFL Press distributed by Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Kelbaugh, D. (1989). The pedestrian pocket book: A new suburban design strategy. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Klink, J., & Denaldi, R. (2011). Metropolitan Fragmentation and Neo-localism in the Periphery: Revisiting the Case of Curitiba. Urban Studies, 49(3), 543-561. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098011408936

Knoflacher, H. (2015, May 5). Professor Emeritus, Vienna Technical University. (R. Buehler, Interviewer) Vienna [Interview].

LADOT. (2015). LADOT Transit Incentive Fares. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Department of Transportation.

Litman, T. (2015). Analysis of public policies that unintentionally encourage and subsidize urban sprawl. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Louafi, O. (2019). The phenomenon of mobility, a development challenge for the city of Algiers. Journal Of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(2), 144-155. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4711

MacLeod, G. (2013). New Urbanism/Smart Growth in the Scottish Highlands: Mobile Policies and Post-politics in Local Development Planning. Urban Studies, 50(11), 2196-2221. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098013491164

Mahendra, A. (2018). Balancing accessability with aspiration: Challenges in urban transport planning in the global South. In G. Bhan, S. Srinivas, & V. Watson (Eds.), The Routledge companion to planning in the global South (pp. 225-240). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781317392842-19

Mishra, A. K. (2019). Cities, transport and agglomeration: Addressing the urban mobility challenges in India. Growth and Change, 50(3), 1115-1133. https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12321

Newman, P. G., & Kenworthy, J. R. (1989). Cities and automobile dependence: An international sourcebook. Brookfield, VT United States: Gower Publishing.

Nyström, L., & Fudge, C. (1999). City and Culture: Cultural Processes and Urban Sustainability (Karlskrona: Swedish Urban Environment Council).

Pojani, D., & Stead, D. (2016). A critical deconstruction of the concept of transit oriented development (TOD). REAL CORP proceedings/Tagungsband, 1-5. http://pure.tudelft.nl/ws/files/10056669/CORP2016_33.pdf

Porter, D. R. (2002). Making smart growth work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.

Stefan, A. (2005). The New Urbanism movement: the case of Sweden. Sweden: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.

Stoel, T. B. (1999). Reining in Urban Sprawl. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 41(4), 6-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/00139159909604624

Transit Cooperative Research Program. (2002). Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States: A Literature Review. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_52.pdf

United Nations. (2010). Shanghai Manual, A Guide for Sustainable Urban Development. Shanghai: United Nations.

United Nations. (2016). Mobilizing Sustainable Transport for Development. New York: United Nations.

Vassilakou, M. (2015, May 9). Vice-Mayor and Minister of Transport for the City of Vienna, 2010–2015, Green Party. (R. Buehler, Interviewer) [Interview].

World Bank. (2006). Greater Cairo: A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy. 71432, Transport Unit. Arab Republic of Egypt: World Bank Urban.

Yang, L., Majumdar, A., van Dam, K. H., & Zhang, L. (2021). Theories and practices for reconciling transport infrastructure, public space, and people–A review. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer, 1-43. https://doi.org/10.1680/jmuen.20.00037

Ye, L., Mandpe, S., & Meyer, P. B. (2005). What Is “Smart Growth?”—Really? Journal of Planning Literature, 19(3), 301-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412204271668

Youzhen, C., & Longlong, D. (2012). From Garden City to Smart Growth: The Evolution and Management of New Urbanism. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Public Management (ICPM 2012), 266-271. https://doi.org/10.2991/icpm.2012.32

Published

2021-09-08

How to Cite

Kafrawy, M., Attia, S., & Khalil, H. A. (2021). The Impact of Transit-Oriented Development on Fast-Urbanizing Cities: Applied analytical study on Greater Cairo Region. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 6(1), 83–95. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2022.v6n1-8