The Impact of Transit-Oriented Development on Fast-Urbanizing Cities: Applied analytical study on Greater Cairo Region
Keywords:Transit-oriented Development, Fast-Urbanizing cities, Sustainable transportation, Sustainable development, Greater Cairo region
Transportation has always been the backbone of development. Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been theorized, piloted and expanded increasingly in the past few decades. In this regard, this paper investigates the relationship between urban development, the transportation process, and the required implementation guidelines within fast-urbanizing cities, such as Cairo. After reviewing different related sustainable development theories, the study investigates pioneering case studies that have applied TOD and provided adequate implementation frameworks. The authors then extract and compare a set of required policies. The current Egyptian development paradigm is then discussed in relation to these enabling policies, focusing on Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. The authors debate previous development plans, progress, and newly proposed ones, focusing on the transportation process as the means for development. The study concludes with a set of required guidelines to ensure the integration of transportation with land-use planning, thus ensuring a more prosperous and inclusive urban development.
Boarnet, M., & Crane, R. C. (2001). Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195123951.003.0008
Bohrn, T., & Buehler, R. (2015). Managing Director, Vienna Regional Public Transport Association. person interview conducted by Ralph Buehler in Vienna, Austria on May, 12, 2015.
Breheny, M. (1996). Centrists, decentrists and compromisers: views on the future of urban form. In Elizabeth Burton, Mike Jenks, & K. Williams (Eds.), The compact city: A sustainable urban form? (pp. 13-35). E & FN Spon London.
Buehler, R., Pucher, J., & Altshuler, A. (2017). Vienna's path to sustainable transport. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(4), 257-271. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2016.1251997
CTOD. (2010). Creating Successful Transit Oriented Districts in Los Angeles:. Los Angloss: Center For Transit Oriented Development.
De Vos, J., Van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2014). The influence of attitudes on Transit-Oriented Development: An explorative analysis. Transport Policy, 35, 326-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.04.004
Dock, F. C., & Swenson, C. J. (2003). Transit-Oriented Urban Design Impacts on Suburban Land Use and Transportation Planning. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1831(1), 184-192. https://doi.org/10.3141/1831-21
Downs, A. (2005). Smart Growth: Why We Discuss It More than We Do It. Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(4), 367-378. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360508976707
Farr, D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design With Nature. John Wiley & Sons.
Hasic, T. (2000). A Sustainable Urban Matrix. In E. Burton, M. Jenks, & K. Williams (Eds.), Achieving Sustainable Urban Form (pp. 329-336). London: E&FN Spon.
Herry, M. (2015, May 12). Consultant, Director, Herry Consulting. (R. Buehler, Interviewer) [Interview].
Holden, E. (2004). Ecological footprints and sustainable urban form. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 19(1), 91-109. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOHO.0000017708.98013.cb
Høyer, K. G., & Holden, E. (2003). Household Consumption and Ecological Footprints in Norway – Does Urban Form Matter? Journal of Consumer Policy, 26(3), 327-349. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025680422704
IPPUC. (2000). A historia do sistema do transporte coletivo de Curitiba. Curitiba: Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano de Curitiba.
Iravani, H., & Rao, V. (2020). The effects of New Urbanism on public health. Journal of Urban Design, 25(2), 218-235. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2018.1554997
JICA. (2002). Transportation Master Plan and Feasibility Study of Urban Transport Projects in Greater Cairo Region in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Cairo: Japan International Cooperation Agency. https://openjicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11709938_01.pdf
Kaufmann, V. (2011). Rethinking the city: Urban duynamics and motility. Lausanne: EPFL Press distributed by Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Kelbaugh, D. (1989). The pedestrian pocket book: A new suburban design strategy. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Klink, J., & Denaldi, R. (2011). Metropolitan Fragmentation and Neo-localism in the Periphery: Revisiting the Case of Curitiba. Urban Studies, 49(3), 543-561. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098011408936
Knoflacher, H. (2015, May 5). Professor Emeritus, Vienna Technical University. (R. Buehler, Interviewer) Vienna [Interview].
LADOT. (2015). LADOT Transit Incentive Fares. Los Angeles: Los Angeles Department of Transportation.
Litman, T. (2015). Analysis of public policies that unintentionally encourage and subsidize urban sprawl. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
Louafi, O. (2019). The phenomenon of mobility, a development challenge for the city of Algiers. Journal Of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 3(2), 144-155. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4711
MacLeod, G. (2013). New Urbanism/Smart Growth in the Scottish Highlands: Mobile Policies and Post-politics in Local Development Planning. Urban Studies, 50(11), 2196-2221. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098013491164
Mahendra, A. (2018). Balancing accessability with aspiration: Challenges in urban transport planning in the global South. In G. Bhan, S. Srinivas, & V. Watson (Eds.), The Routledge companion to planning in the global South (pp. 225-240). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781317392842-19
Mishra, A. K. (2019). Cities, transport and agglomeration: Addressing the urban mobility challenges in India. Growth and Change, 50(3), 1115-1133. https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12321
Newman, P. G., & Kenworthy, J. R. (1989). Cities and automobile dependence: An international sourcebook. Brookfield, VT United States: Gower Publishing.
Nyström, L., & Fudge, C. (1999). City and Culture: Cultural Processes and Urban Sustainability (Karlskrona: Swedish Urban Environment Council).
Pojani, D., & Stead, D. (2016). A critical deconstruction of the concept of transit oriented development (TOD). REAL CORP proceedings/Tagungsband, 1-5. http://pure.tudelft.nl/ws/files/10056669/CORP2016_33.pdf
Porter, D. R. (2002). Making smart growth work. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
Stefan, A. (2005). The New Urbanism movement: the case of Sweden. Sweden: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
Stoel, T. B. (1999). Reining in Urban Sprawl. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 41(4), 6-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/00139159909604624
Transit Cooperative Research Program. (2002). Transit-Oriented Development and Joint Development in the United States: A Literature Review. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/tcrp/tcrp_rrd_52.pdf
United Nations. (2010). Shanghai Manual, A Guide for Sustainable Urban Development. Shanghai: United Nations.
United Nations. (2016). Mobilizing Sustainable Transport for Development. New York: United Nations.
Vassilakou, M. (2015, May 9). Vice-Mayor and Minister of Transport for the City of Vienna, 2010–2015, Green Party. (R. Buehler, Interviewer) [Interview].
World Bank. (2006). Greater Cairo: A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy. 71432, Transport Unit. Arab Republic of Egypt: World Bank Urban.
Yang, L., Majumdar, A., van Dam, K. H., & Zhang, L. (2021). Theories and practices for reconciling transport infrastructure, public space, and people–A review. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Municipal Engineer, 1-43. https://doi.org/10.1680/jmuen.20.00037
Ye, L., Mandpe, S., & Meyer, P. B. (2005). What Is “Smart Growth?”—Really? Journal of Planning Literature, 19(3), 301-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885412204271668
Youzhen, C., & Longlong, D. (2012). From Garden City to Smart Growth: The Evolution and Management of New Urbanism. Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Public Management (ICPM 2012), 266-271. https://doi.org/10.2991/icpm.2012.32
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 MS.c. Mohamed Kafrawy, Professor Dr. Sahar Attia, Professor Dr. Heba Allah Khalil
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.