E-participatory Approaches in Urban Design

Main Article Content

Araf Oyku Oyku Turken
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Engin Eyup Eyuboglu


The phenomenon of planning involving citizen’s participation in planning literature has been from the second half of the 20th century. Indeed, different methods and techniques have been used in the process. However, participatory practices are time-consuming and negotiations are tiresome. Accordingly, the integration of developing digital technologies into participatory processes has been seen as a potential to reach large audiences and provide time-space independence. Within the scope of this research, a detailed literature review was done regarding e-participation, and ten (10) examples representing the upper levels at the ladder of participation were examined within the context of project, participation, and socio-technical criteria. SWOT analyzes were structured by grouping similar applications, and current trends for the use of e-participation in urban design have been revealed. The analysis showed that citizens e participation- participation tend to allow citizen design or location-based interaction, playful interfaces and game elements which can be sources for encouragement.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Metrics

Article Details

How to Cite
Oyku Turken, A. O., & Eyup Eyuboglu, . E. (2020). E-participatory Approaches in Urban Design. Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs, 5(2), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2021.v5n2-2


Arki_lab. (2014). ArkiCity Co-Create Your City. Retrieved April 2020, from https://www.arkilab.dk/arkicity/

Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), 216 - 224.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225

Carver, S. (2001). The Future of Participatory Approaches Using Geographic Information: developing a research agenda for the 21st Century. URISA Journal , 61-71. https://www.urisa.org/clientuploads/directory/Documents/Journal/vol15apa1.pdf

CityPlannerOnline. (2003). AGENCY9. Retrieved April 2020, from https://cityplanneronline.com/site/

Commonplace. (2013). An online engagement hub to win the public's hearts and minds . Retrieved from https://www.commonplace.is/platform

Commons, C. (2011). Participation Models: Citizens, Youth, Online. https://www.nonformality.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Participation-Models-20110703.pdf

Davidson, S. (1998). Spinning the wheel of empowerment. Planning (1262), 14-15. https://sarkissian.com.au/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2009/06/Davidson-Spinning-wheel-article1998.pdf

Desouza, K. C., & Bhagwatwar, A. (2012). Citizen Apps to Solve Complex Urban Problems. Journal of Urban Technology, 19(3), 107-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2012.673056

Desouza, K. C., & Bhagwatwar, A. (2014). Technology-Enabled Participatory Platforms for Civic Engagement: The Case of U.S. Cities. Journal of Urban Technology,, 21(4), 25-50. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2014.954898

Ertiö, T. (2013). M-participation: the emergence of participatory planning applications. City of Turku Turku Urban Research Programme: Research Briefings 6b/2013. Turku.https://www.turku.fi/sites/default/files/atoms/files/tutkimuskatsauksia_2013-6b.pdf

Ertiö, T.-P. (2018). Plan on The Move: Mobile Participation in Urban Planning. University of Turku.https://www.utupub.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/144328/AnnalesB449.pdf?sequence=5

ETHx. (2017). Responsive Cities. Retrieved from Edx: https://www.edx.org/course/responsive-cities

Falco, E., & Kleinhans, R. (2018). Digital Participatory Platforms for Co- Production in Urban Development: A Systematic Review. International Journal of E-Planning Research, 7(3), 1-27. https://dx.doi.org/10.4018/IJEPR.2018070105

Fasihi, A., Mansourian, A., Farnaghi, M., & Taleai, M. (2009). A Web Based Method for Supporting Colloboration in the Urban Spatial Decision Making. Information Technologies . Lithuania. https://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.1483.8724

Fathejalali, A. (2017). Enhancing Citizen Engagement in Urban Planning Processes through Mobile Participation (mParticipation). Berlin: Technischen Universität Berlin. https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/handle/11303/6244

Geogames Lab. (n.d.). B3- Design your Marketplace. Retrieved April 2020, from https://geogameslab.net/contact/e-footprints/projects/projects/b3-design-your-marketplace/

Giffinger, R., Fertner, C., Kramar, H., Kalasek, R., Pichler, N., & Meijers, E. (2007). Smart Cities: Ranking of European Medium-sized Cities. Final Report. Vienna UT. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261367640_Smart_cities_-_Ranking_of_European_medium-sized_cities

Gupta, S., Mustafa, S. Z., & Kumar, H. (2017). Smart People for Smart Cities: A Behavioral Framework for Personality and Roles. In A. K. Kar, M. P. Gupta, & V. Ilavarasan, Advances In Smart Cities Smarter People, Governance, and Solutions (pp. 23-31). https://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781315156040

Haeusler, M. H., Asher, R., & Booth, L. (2017). Urban Pinboard Development of a platform to access open source data to optimise urban planning performance. eCAADe, 1, 439-448.http://papers.cumincad.org/data/works/att/ecaade2017_011.pdf

Hasler, S., Chenal, J., & Soutter, M. (2017). Digital Tools as a Means to Foster Inclusive, Data-informed Urban Planning. Civil Engineering and Architecture, 5(6), 230-239. https://dx.doi.org/10.13189/cea.2017.050605

Höffken, S., & Streich, B. (2013). Mobile Participation: Citizen Engagement in Urban Planning via Smartphones. In C. N. Silva, Citizen E-Participation in Urban Governance: Crowdsourcing and Collaborative Creativity (pp. 199-226). https://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-4169-3.ch011

Hudson-Smith, A., Evans, S., Batty, M., & Batty, S. (2002, December). Online participation: The Woodberry Down Experience. Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis: Working Paper Series. London, England: University College London. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/32884877_Online_participation_the_Woodberry_Down_experiment

IAP2. (2007). Spectrum of public participation.https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.iap2.org/resource/resmgr/pillars/Spectrum_8.5x11_Print.pdf

Jannack, A., Holmer, T., Stelzle, B., Doll, K., Naumann, F., Wilde, A., & Noennig, J. (2019). Smart Campus Design - U_CODE Tools Tested for Co-Designing the CJD Learning Campus, Sangerhausen Case Study. In Hands-on Science. Innovative Education in Science and Technology (pp. 11-20).https://repository.tdmu.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/12503/semenets-vakulenko-berezovska-2019-scheduler.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Janowitz, M. (2015). Giriş. In R. Park, & E. W. Burgess, Şehir: Kent Ortamındaki İnsan Davranışlarının Araştırılması Üzerine Öneriler (p. İstanbul). [City: Recommendations on Researching Human Behaviors in Urban Environment (p. Istanbul)]. Heretik Yayınları:Turkey

Kassen, M. (2018). E-participation actors: understanding roles, connections, partnerships. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 18:1, 16-37. https://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080/14778238.2018.1547252

Kingston, R. (2002). The role of e-government and public participation in the planning process. XVI. AESOP Congress, (pp. 1-14). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228363234_The_role_of_e-government_and_public_participation_in_the_planning_process

Klosterman, R. E. (2012). E-Planning: Retrospect and Prospect. International Journal of E-Planning Research, 1(1), 1-4. https://dx.doi.org/10.4018/ijepr.2012010101

Krabina, B. (2016). The E-Participation Ladder – Advancing from Unawareness to Impact Participation. Conference for Democracy & Open Government. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303371027_The_E-Participation_Ladder_-_Advancing_from_Unawareness_to_Impact_Participation

Kubicek, H. (2009). The Potential of E-Participation in Urban Planning: A European Perspective. In Handbook of Research on E-Planning: ICTs for Urban Development and Monitoring (pp. 168-194). https://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-929-3.ch009

Lane, M. B. (2005). Public Participation in Planning: an intellectual history. Australian Geographer, 36(3), 283-299. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049180500325694

Lefebvre, H. (2016). Şehir Hakkı [Le Droit a la ville].Istanbul: Sel Yayıncılık.

Macintosh, A. (2004). Characterizing E-Participation in Policy-Making. 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, (pp. 1-10). https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2004.1265300

Macintosh, A., & Whyte, A. (2008). Towards an evaluation framework for eParticipation. Transforming Government: People, Process & Policy, 2(1), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506160810862928

Mansourian, A., Taleai, M., & Fasihi, A. (2011). A web-based spatial decision support system to enhance public participation in urban planning processes. Journal of Spatial Science, 56(2), 269–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/14498596.2011.623347

Maptionnaire. (2011). Maptionnaire. Retrieved April 2020, from Create map-based surveys to get ideas and insights from residents: https://maptionnaire.com

Mueller, J., & Lu, H. (2017). Designing with citizens: Challenges and evaluation methods for crowd-sourced urban layouts. CAID@IJCAI. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0cdd/d21a083a18f0c6e8567dedbdb444893595da.pdf

Mueller, J., Lu, H., Chirkin, A., Klein, B., & Schmitt, G. (2018). Citizen Design Science: A strategy for crowd-creative urban design. Cities(72), pp. 181-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.08.018

OECD. (2001). Citizens as Partners - Information, Consultation and Public Participation in Policy- Making. https://www.internationalbudget.org/wp-content/uploads/Citizens-as-Partners-OECD-Handbook.pdf

Poplin, A. (2013). Digital serious game for urban planning: “B3—Design your Marketplace!”. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1068%2Fb39032

Thiel, S. K. (2017). Let’s play urban planner: The use of game elements in public participation platforms. plaNext – next generation planning. 4, 58-75. https://doi.org/10.24306/plnxt.2017.04.005

U_CODE. (2019). Pilot test in Sangerhausen, Germany (May/June 2019). Retrieved April 2020, from http://www.u-code.eu/#

Unlimited Cities DIY. (2017). A free application to transform the city together. Retrieved April 2020, from http://unli-diy.org/EN/

World Urban Campaign. (2016). Unlimited Cities DIY. Retrieved April 2020, from.https://www.worldurbancampaign.org/unlimited-cities-diy